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英國封城第一天:污染降了,空氣好了

英國封城第一天:污染降了,空氣好了

KATHERINE DUNN 2020年03月26日
目前正在醞釀之中的美國疫情紓困計劃并沒有直接解決租金的問題。

多年來,倫敦一直試圖解決城市空氣污染問題。現在,隨著英國全國封城第一天的到來,倫敦的天空有望從冠狀病毒傳播的陰影中得到一絲好處:云散天晴。

不用下载能看的毛片视频周一,約克大學國家大氣科學中心表示,二月中旬以來,倫敦的空氣污染水平大幅下降,并指出下降幅度“遠高于”過去三年的趨勢。

不用下载能看的毛片视频該中心指出,天氣等其他因素也會對空氣污染產生影響。但同時表示,由于倫敦的交通逐漸減少,商業活動放緩,預計這種下降趨勢將繼續。

不用下载能看的毛片视频“英國多個城市的空氣質量出現改善,與其他限制出行和戶外活動的國家情況一致。”該中心大氣化學教授阿拉斯泰爾·劉易斯在一份書面評論中表示,“主要原因是交通流量減少,其中二氧化氮的減少最為明顯,而汽車尾氣是二氧化氮的主要來源。”

專家預計,倫敦將復制全球其它封城地區空氣污染明顯下降的趨勢。根據衛星監測系統的數據,在中國武漢和意大利北部——工業重地波河流域所在地、西歐污染最嚴重的地區之一——污染都大幅下降。

隨著英國周一晚上開始封城,污染下降的勢頭應該將繼續,而之前意大利、德國等其他歐洲國家也紛紛采取了更嚴格的限制措施,要求人們居家隔離,遏制冠狀病毒的蔓延。

不用下载能看的毛片视频周一晚間,英國首相鮑里斯·約翰遜在電視講話中宣布,除了購買必須的食物和藥品、日常鍛煉、從事必要的工作和緊急情況外,人們不得離開住所。

不用下载能看的毛片视频政府還禁止非共同居住的兩人以上的團體聚會,稱警方將驅散集會,對不遵守規定的人處以罰款。

“沒有哪個首相愿意采取這樣的措施。”約翰遜說,“我知道這種中斷措施現在和將來都會對人們的生活、企業和工作造成傷害。”

上周,政府承諾拿出數百億英鎊刺激經濟,應對企業被迫關閉和大規模裁員的困境。各項措施中包括承諾為那些否則將因為危機失業的員工支付80%的工資。

歐洲幾大都城因為經濟受到重創,正在發生轉變。在這些地方,龐大的道路運輸網和交通流量往往是污染的重要原因,尤其是,它們滋生了最危險的空氣污染物:二氧化氮和顆粒物。

不用下载能看的毛片视频根據空氣質量監測項目“倫敦呼吸”的數據,在倫敦,道路交通排放約占該市二氧化氮總量的一半,顆粒物總量的26%。在交通繁忙的地區,這些污染物的濃度經常超過法律規定的水平。

不用下载能看的毛片视频長期以來,降低排放都是倫敦市長薩迪克·汗的一項重點工作。在汗的領導下,倫敦在市中心設立了超低排放區;大幅增加了低排放公交車的數量,倫敦著名的紅色雙層巴士也用上了低排放車;并停止向新的柴油出租車發放牌照。

諷刺的是,近期排放量大幅減少,而在正常情況下,空氣質量出現任何提升,都大大有利于拯救生命。

不用下载能看的毛片视频萊斯特大學的環境流行病學教授安娜·漢塞爾在一份書面評論中指出,根據英國皇家醫師學院的數據,英國每年約有40萬人死于戶外空氣污染。

“不幸的是,我們可能無法看到人們把空氣污染減少與死亡率的下降直接掛鉤,”漢塞爾說。她指出,至少到2021年,許多人的死因可能都難以分析——而壓力、孤獨和國家醫療系統過載都會導致死者生前的情況惡化。

與此同時,劉易斯說,倫敦和其他大城市最近的安靜,可以提供一些關于未來的信息:“現在,城市排放暫時減少,為我們預判城市今后的空氣質量提供了一些獨特視角。”

我們利用這個視角,看到了也感受到了當排放大幅降低時,城市的模樣。(財富中文網)

譯者:Agatha

多年來,倫敦一直試圖解決城市空氣污染問題。現在,隨著英國全國封城第一天的到來,倫敦的天空有望從冠狀病毒傳播的陰影中得到一絲好處:云散天晴。

不用下载能看的毛片视频周一,約克大學國家大氣科學中心表示,二月中旬以來,倫敦的空氣污染水平大幅下降,并指出下降幅度“遠高于”過去三年的趨勢。

該中心指出,天氣等其他因素也會對空氣污染產生影響。但同時表示,由于倫敦的交通逐漸減少,商業活動放緩,預計這種下降趨勢將繼續。

不用下载能看的毛片视频“英國多個城市的空氣質量出現改善,與其他限制出行和戶外活動的國家情況一致。”該中心大氣化學教授阿拉斯泰爾·劉易斯在一份書面評論中表示,“主要原因是交通流量減少,其中二氧化氮的減少最為明顯,而汽車尾氣是二氧化氮的主要來源。”

專家預計,倫敦將復制全球其它封城地區空氣污染明顯下降的趨勢。根據衛星監測系統的數據,在中國武漢和意大利北部——工業重地波河流域所在地、西歐污染最嚴重的地區之一——污染都大幅下降。

隨著英國周一晚上開始封城,污染下降的勢頭應該將繼續,而之前意大利、德國等其他歐洲國家也紛紛采取了更嚴格的限制措施,要求人們居家隔離,遏制冠狀病毒的蔓延。

周一晚間,英國首相鮑里斯·約翰遜在電視講話中宣布,除了購買必須的食物和藥品、日常鍛煉、從事必要的工作和緊急情況外,人們不得離開住所。

不用下载能看的毛片视频政府還禁止非共同居住的兩人以上的團體聚會,稱警方將驅散集會,對不遵守規定的人處以罰款。

“沒有哪個首相愿意采取這樣的措施。”約翰遜說,“我知道這種中斷措施現在和將來都會對人們的生活、企業和工作造成傷害。”

上周,政府承諾拿出數百億英鎊刺激經濟,應對企業被迫關閉和大規模裁員的困境。各項措施中包括承諾為那些否則將因為危機失業的員工支付80%的工資。

不用下载能看的毛片视频歐洲幾大都城因為經濟受到重創,正在發生轉變。在這些地方,龐大的道路運輸網和交通流量往往是污染的重要原因,尤其是,它們滋生了最危險的空氣污染物:二氧化氮和顆粒物。

根據空氣質量監測項目“倫敦呼吸”的數據,在倫敦,道路交通排放約占該市二氧化氮總量的一半,顆粒物總量的26%。在交通繁忙的地區,這些污染物的濃度經常超過法律規定的水平。

不用下载能看的毛片视频長期以來,降低排放都是倫敦市長薩迪克·汗的一項重點工作。在汗的領導下,倫敦在市中心設立了超低排放區;大幅增加了低排放公交車的數量,倫敦著名的紅色雙層巴士也用上了低排放車;并停止向新的柴油出租車發放牌照。

諷刺的是,近期排放量大幅減少,而在正常情況下,空氣質量出現任何提升,都大大有利于拯救生命。

萊斯特大學的環境流行病學教授安娜·漢塞爾在一份書面評論中指出,根據英國皇家醫師學院的數據,英國每年約有40萬人死于戶外空氣污染。

不用下载能看的毛片视频“不幸的是,我們可能無法看到人們把空氣污染減少與死亡率的下降直接掛鉤,”漢塞爾說。她指出,至少到2021年,許多人的死因可能都難以分析——而壓力、孤獨和國家醫療系統過載都會導致死者生前的情況惡化。

不用下载能看的毛片视频與此同時,劉易斯說,倫敦和其他大城市最近的安靜,可以提供一些關于未來的信息:“現在,城市排放暫時減少,為我們預判城市今后的空氣質量提供了一些獨特視角。”

不用下载能看的毛片视频我們利用這個視角,看到了也感受到了當排放大幅降低時,城市的模樣。(財富中文網)

譯者:Agatha

不用下载能看的毛片视频London has been trying to tackle its air-pollution problem for years. Now, with the U.K. on its first day of a nationwide lockdown, the city’s skies are expected to get a silver-lining benefit from the spread of the coronavirus: a break.

On Monday, the National Centre for Atmospheric Science at the University of York showed a sharp drop in air pollution for London beginning in mid-February, noting that the decline was “much more significant” than the trend for the previous three years.

不用下载能看的毛片视频The center noted that there are other factors that can affect air pollution—including weather. But it said the decline was expected to continue, given that traffic across the capital has increasingly disappeared and business has slowed.

不用下载能看的毛片视频“Air quality has started to improve in many U.K. cities, mirroring what has been seen in other countries that have restricted travel and levels of outdoor activity,” said Alastair Lewis, professor of atmospheric chemistry at the center, in a written comment. “This is primarily a consequence of lower traffic volumes, and some of the most clear reductions have been in nitrogen dioxide (NO2), which comes primarily from vehicle exhaust.”

London’s decline is expected to replicate the noticeable drop-off in air pollution occurring in other areas around the world that have been put under lockdown. Wuhan, China, and northern Italy—home to the industrial Po Valley, one of the most polluted areas in western Europe—have both seen dramatic drops in pollution, as measured by satellite monitoring systems.

The U.K.’s decline in pollution was expected to gain momentum as the country entered lockdown beginning Monday evening, following other European countries from Italy to Germany that have announced increasingly restrictive measures to keep people in their homes and stem the spread of the coronavirus.

In a televised address Monday evening, Prime Minister Boris Johnson announced that people were barred from leaving the house other than to get essential food and medicine and for daily exercise, essential work, and emergencies.

不用下载能看的毛片视频The government also moved to ban groups of more than two people who don’t live together from assembling, and said police would break up gatherings and fine those who do not comply.

“No Prime Minister wants to enact measures like this,” said Johnson. “I know the damage that this disruption is doing and will do to people’s lives, to their businesses, and to their jobs.”

Last week, the government pledged hundreds of billions of pounds to support the economy as businesses have been forced to close and companies have announced widespread layoffs. Those include a pledge to pay 80% of salaries for workers who would otherwise be laid off owing to the crisis, among other measures.

That dramatic economic hit is transforming Europe’s largest capitals, where pollution is often a consequence of the vast networks of road transport and their resulting traffic, particularly in regard to the most dangerous sources of air pollution: nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter.

For London, road traffic accounts for roughly half of the city’s NO2, and about 26% of particulate matter, according to Breathe London, an air-quality monitoring project. Concentrations of those pollutants frequently exceed legal levels in high-traffic areas of the British capital.

不用下载能看的毛片视频Bringing down emissions has been a long-term focus of London Mayor Sadiq Khan. Under Khan, the city has instituted an Ultra Low Emission Zone in its center; dramatically expanded its fleet of low-emissions buses, including the red double-deckers the city is known for; and stopped licensing new diesel taxis.

One of the ironies of the dramatic recent reductions in emissions is that—under normal circumstances—any increase in air quality would have a measurable impact in terms of saving lives.

Outdoor air pollution is estimated to cost 400,000 lives per year in the U.K., according to figures from the Royal College of Physicians, noted Anna Hansell, professor in environmental epidemiology at the University of Leicester, in a written comment.

“Sadly we may not see reductions in air pollution translated into direct drops in mortality,” said Hansell. She noted that at least into 2021, the causes of many deaths—which can be exacerbated by stress, isolation, and an overburdened National Health Service system—will likely be difficult to parse.

In the meantime, Lewis said, the newfound quiet in London, and in other major cities, may offer something going forward: “The temporary reductions in emissions being seen at the moment provide us with some unique insight into what might be possible for future air quality in cities.”

It’s a view of how a city with dramatically lower emissions could look—under better circumstances—and feel.

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